Carbohydrates also known as carbs, sugars or starches. these are aggregations of small molecule called saccharides. Glucose, Fructose and Galactose are made up of one molecule so they are called Monosaccharides. (Simple sugars) (CH2O)n where n is from 3 to 7.

while If two molecules of sugar combine they form Disaccharides. e.g. Lactose, Maltose and Sucrose. (C12H22O11)



If three to ten Saccharide molecules are combined together they are called Oligosaccharides but If more than ten molecules combine they are called Polysaccharides.  Cx(H2O)n


During digestion your body breakdown each molecule of carbohydrate into its building blocks which your cell can use for energy and when you eat any carbohydrate rich food your blood sugar level goes up but your digestive track do not response to all carbohydrates the same. Consider starch and fibre both polysaccharides both derived from plants. Both compose hundreds and thousands of   monosaccharides join together but they join together differently and that changes the affect they have on your body.  In Starches which plants mostly store energy from roots and seeds. Glucose molecules join together by Alpha linkage most of them can easily cleaned by enzymes in digestive system.

Sugars have two main types:

  1. Natural Sugars
  2. Added Sugars


This type of sugars found in whole and unprocessed food. These food may be fruits rich in Fructose sugar and Milk containing Lactose sugar etc.


These type of sugars are present in the processed foods and drinks especially in junk food but these carbs contain no nutritive value but only used for the following purpose;

  • To improve the color and other sensory attributes of the food
  • Keep food (e.g Jam, Jellies) from spoiling
  • Help bakery items keep fresh for longer time period.

Examples of food items which contain added sugars are bakery items in which cakes, cookies, candies, jam & Jellies, sweet rolls, pastries, doughnuts etc.

Disadvantages of Added Sugar

It leads to many diseases.

Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, High Trigleceride levels, Heart diseases, Increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or “bad”) Cholestrol levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or “good”) Cholestrol levels.